On 23 april 2005, Pugwash held its 2nd consultation on the Kashmir dispute in Srinigar, Kashmir.
Report from the Daily Times
Pugwash meeting for Kashmir ceasefire and troop withdrawal
Daily Times – Site Edition Sunday, April 24, 2005
NEW DELHI: Speakers at a conference in Srinagar on Saturday demanded an internal ceasefire, withdrawal of troops and the inclusion of people of Jammu and Kashmir in the India-Pakistan dialogue.
The meet, which is called Pugwash conference, was attended by former diplomats, ambassadors and political leaders. Welcoming the peace process between Pakistan and India, the speakers felt that Kashmiri people had not been consulted by both governments. They warned that if people were not included in the peace process, “it will turn out to be a damp squib”.
They also called for operationalising the Kashmir-related confidence-building measures (CBMs). The Pugwash conference participants said that the re-opening of the Srinagar-Muzaffarabad Road was not enough and other routes should also be re-opened.
The participants included C Raja Mohan, political and strategic affairs analyst, G Parthasarthy, former ambassador, MK Rasgotra, former foreign secretary, Kapil Kak, former air vice marshal, Ved Bhasin, Kashmir Times group of publications chairman, Nirmal Singh, Bharatiya Janata Paty president in Kashmir, Prof Saifuddin Soz, member of parliament, Jitender Bakshi, president of the action committee for the return of Hindu migrants, Prof Bhim Singh, Panthers Party president, and Muhammad Yousuf Tarigami, Communist Party of India-Marxist secretary in Kashmir.
Politicians who attended the conference were Prof Abdul Gani Bhat, Sajjad Lone, Ghulam Rasool Dar and Muhammad Abdullah Tari.
Daily Times – Site Edition Sunday, April 24, 2005
A chronology of negotiations and CBMs between India and Pakistan
India lodges complaint in the UN Security Council against Pakistan, accusing the latter of aiding the tribal attacks into Kashmir.
The United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) passed a resolution providing for (1) Ceasefire (2) Withdrawal of Pak troops and tribals followed by Indian troops and (3) Plebiscite
Under the auspices of UNCIP, Ceasefire Line Agreement is signed in Karachi by military representatives of Pakistan and India along with representatives of UNCIP.
After the Karachi Agreement, UNCIP proposes tripartite meeting at political level on August 17 to conclude Truce Agreement stipulating programme of withdrawal of forces. Meeting is cancelled in view of persisting differences between the two sides.
Article-370 is inserted in the Indian Constitution giving Kashmir certain special rights not given to other states of India.
Following UNCIP’s final report, Security Council on December 17 requested its President, Gen A.G.L. McNaughton (Canada) to mediate between the parties and find a “mutually satisfactory basis for dealing with the Kashmir problem”. For details see details under “Options Suggested so far”.
In January Gen. MaCnaughton begins earnest mediation efforts but finds the positions of the two parties wide apart.
The possibility of “partition-cum-plebiscite” was also raised at the Liaquat-Nehru meeting in New Delhi in July, 1950, in which both sides were ready to explore ideas beyond their original positions.
Security Council appoints Sir Own Dixon, eminent jurist from Australia, as UN Representative. Appointment is accepted by both India and Pakistan.
Owen Dixon conducts intensive negotiations with governments of Pakistan and India and also meets Shaikh Abdullah in Srinagar and Ghulam Abbas in Muzaffarabad.
“The Dixon Plan”, proposed by Sir Owen Dixon, UN Representative for India and Pakistan on Kashmir, submitted to the Security Council, assigned Ladakh to India, the Northern Areas and Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir (POK) to Pakistan, split Jammu between the two, and envisaged a plebiscite in the Kashmir Valley.
President of Council states that (a) question of accession to be decided by plebiscite, (b) the plebiscite to be conducted under conditions ensuring complete impartiality and (c) hence to be held under the aegis of United Nations “are not disputed between the parties”.
Nehru and Liaquat hold a meeting in London during the Commonwealth Conference. The Prime Ministers of Australia, UK, Canada, New Zealand and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) are present. An Australian suggestion about posting a Commonwealth brigade in Kashmir and holding a limited plebiscite is not acceptable to either country, with Pakistan insisting on a plebiscite for the entire state and India unwilling to countenance stationing of “foreign troops on Indian soil”.
The Security Council representative Frank Graham presents 12 proposals to India and Pakistan. While some are acceptable to both, disagreement persists on the quantum and disposition of troops and the induction into office of a Plebiscite Administrator. Meetings to resolve the differences at New York and Geneva fail achieve anything.
In his revised proposals on 16 July 1952, Graham tries to narrow down the differences on the size and disposition of troops but does not succeed. Negotiations continue and agreement is reached on all points except the size of Pakistani Kashmir and Indian and Kashmir State forces to be retained on the eve of the plebiscite and the timing of the Plebiscite Administrator’s appointment. Further negotiations at UN and Geneva do not reduce the differences on these two points. Finally, Graham reports failure of his mission to the Security Council on 27 March 1953.
Pakistani and Indian Prime Ministers meet in Karachi and agree that a resolution of their disputes is “essential to progress in both countries”.
Pakistan Prime Minister Mohammed Ali visits New Delhi. Communiqué issued at end of meeting says issue of Kashmir “should be settled in accordance with the wishes of the people of that State with a view to promoting their well-being and causing the least disturbance to the life of the people of the State”. Both the countries agree on appointment of Plebiscite Administrator by end of April 1954.
Pakistan President Ayub Khan holds meeting with Jawaharlal Nehru at Delhi airport and talk of settling Kashmir.
President Ayub and Nehru meet in London at Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Conference and discuss Kashmir but without making progress towards settlement.
Nehru visits Karachi and Rawalpindi and Kashmir forms one of main topics of discussion between Ayub and him but without any results
During Nehru’s visit to the US, President Kennedy asks him to solve the Kashmir issue at the insistence of Ayub Khan. Nehru ruled out any solution other than one based on the ceasefire line.
India, under pressure from the United States and Britain, engaged in six rounds of secret talks with Pakistan on “Kashmir and other related issues.” Pakistan’s Foreign Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Indian External Affairs Minister Sardar Swarn Singh participated in these talks.
First round at Rawalpindi – December 26-29, 1962 – is confined to preliminaries, historical aspects and respective stands.
India was also ready to accept the partition of Kashmir while urging that the division should take into account geographic, administrative and other considerations, and that the settlement should involve the least disturbance to the life and welfare of the people
Second round of Pak-India talks at Delhi – January 16-20, 2003 – and third at Karachi – April 21-25 – see Pakistan calling for plebiscite and India opposing it, at fourth round at Calcutta – March 12-14 – India suggests readjustment of ceasefire line to settle dispute which Pakistan rejects, while fifth round in Karachi – April 21-25 – is taken up with Indian protest at recently signed Pak-China boundary agreement under which some area of former State is ceded to China. At sixth and final round at Delhi – May 14-16 – Pakistan proposes plebiscite confined to Valley which it further suggests should be placed under international control for 12 to 15 months prior to holding of vote. If plebiscite not acceptable, then people’s wishes should be ascertained in some other form and dispute settled. India rejects both proposals. During these talks India offered Pakistan some strips of territory to the west and north of the valley but would concede no part of the valley itself
Nehru invites Abdullah to Delhi and the two make up. Abdullah travels to Pakistan and also goes to Pakistani Kashmir where he confers with its President K.H. Khurshid. It is said that Nehru had a change of heart on Kashmir, though some deny it. Ayub later records that Abdullah proposed confedral arrangements between Pakistan, India and Kashmir, which he rejected. Mirza Afzal Beg, who accompanies Abdullah to Pakistan later tells Indian author P.L. Lakhanpal, “various solutions of the dispute were talked about in general terms but no preferences for any particular solutions were indicated.”
Nehru’s sudden death in New Delhi aborts Abdullah’s mission without any agreement. Abdullah returns to India.
President Ayub Khan and Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri meet in Karachi but no dramatic announcements are made nor is there any expression of mutual goodwill. However, it is agreed that next contact will be at the ministerial level.
Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and president Ayub Khan, ending the 17-day war between Pakistan and India of August–September 1965 signed the Tashkent Agreement on 10 January 1966. A cease-fire had been secured by the United Nations Security Council on Sept. 22, 1965.
June 28-July 2
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Indira Gandhi meet in Shimla, India, to deal with consequences of 1971. On July 2, the two leaders reach an agreement and signed the Shimla Agreement. On Jammu and Kashmir, the accord renames cease-fire line as line of actual control – to reflect some minor adjustments that are mutually agreed on – and while it pledges both sides to respect the new line, a proviso added at Bhutto’s insistence says this will be “without prejudice to the recognised position of either side” It also commits both countries to “further undertake to refrain from the threat of use of force in violation of this line”.
Indira Gandhi received Zia on November 1, 1982, in New Delhi, and during their meeting they authorized their foreign ministers and foreign secretaries to proceed with talks leading to the establishment of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
Foreign Secretary level talks in Islamabad between J N Dixit and Saharyar Khan. Main issue is Kashmir. Talks fail.
Ministry level talks between India and Pakistan in New Delhi for combating Drug trafficking and smuggling.
Indian Prime Minister, in his message of felicitations to Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto on her assumption of office in October 1993, offered to discuss all aspects (of Kashmir). Indian High Commissioner to Pakistan S.K. Lambah tells The Nation that India is ready for a dialogue on Kashmir with Pakistan at any time, at any level and without any condition.
Indian Foreign Minister Pranab Mukerjee says he is ready for talks with Pakistan at “anyplace, anytime” but an upcoming South Asian summit is not the forum for such bilateral discussions.
Pakistan President Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari rules out the third option of independent Kashmir for the resolution of the Kashmir issue because it betrays the basic philosophy of the 1947 Partition Plan. Indian Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao says that Kashmir issue can be resolved only in a “conducive and congenial atmosphere between India and Pakistan.”
Indian External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukerjee says New Delhi is committed to resolving all its disputes with Islamabad, including over Kashmir, bilaterally and peacefully. He rules out third country mediation in Kashmir. Yet another revered shrine is besieged by the Indian troops soon after the burning of Charar Sharif.
Former Pakistan Foreign Secretary Shaharyar M. Khan and J.N. Dixit, India’s Foreign Secretary until 1992, tell the Wilton Park conference sponsored by the Foreign and Commonwealth office in London that a political solution of the Kashmir conflict has to be found, one which also fulfils the aspirations of the Kashmiri people.
Pakistani and Indian military officers meet on ceasefire line dividing Kashmir, to ease tension after clashes.
Indian Prime Minister Narasimha Rao says India is committed to holding dialogue with Pakistan on all issues including Kashmir without any preconditions but rules out third-party mediation.
Pakistan Foreign Secretary Shamshad Ahmed took a firm line as he arrived in New Delhi for the first official talks with India in three years, throwing down the gauntlet as he declared Kashmir the ‘core issue’ on the agenda.
Shamshad, due to hold talks with his Indian counterpart Salman Haider during a groundbreaking four-day visit, arrived just hours after a street protest had erupted in New Delhi over Pakistan’s stance on Kashmir.
Pakistan and India sat down at the negotiating table for the first time in three years with the Kashmir dispute high on the agenda. The two-hour session, the first official talks since 1994, ended in an upbeat mood, with Shamshad Ahmed, who had said earlier Kashmir would be the core issue of the negotiations, saying “The talks were very cordial and very meaningful and very purposeful. We are very hopeful.”
Pakistan and India completed four days of talks aimed at reducing tension and agreed to meet again in Islamabad.
“The two foreign secretaries discussed all outstanding issues of concern to both sides in a frank, cordial and constructive manner,” a joint statement issued after the talks said.
Foreign Minister Gohar Ayub Khan asked India to acknowledge the existence of a bilateral dispute over Kashmir, saying such a move is key to improving relations
Addressing the extraordinary summit of the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO), Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif said that Pakistan favours a peaceful settlement of the Kashmir issue in accordance with the resolutions of the United Nations Security Council.
The secretary general of the United Nations, Mr. Kofi Annan, in a meeting with Pakistan foreign minister Gohar Ayub Khan assured him that he was willing to use his good offices to find a solution of the festering 50-year-old Kashmir dispute between Pakistan and India
Pakistan and India have reached an agreement to form a mechanism for sustained dialogue on issues between the two countries. Both the countries have identified eight issue areas, including the problem of Jammu and Kashmir, which will serve as agenda for future talks.
A joint statement released at the conclusion of the second round of foreign secretary level talks said the two sides have also agreed to set up working groups to deal with all outstanding issues at appropriate levels. The problems of peace and security and Jammu and Kashmir would, however, be taken up at the secretary level.
India has rejected Pakistan’s interpretation that it has accepted Jammu and Kashmir as a “disputed territory” after the second round of Secretary-level talks just concluded in Islamabad.
On the second day of third round of Foreign Secretary-level talks, the two sides continued the diplomatic efforts to “operationalise mechanism” for future ‘structured dialogue’ on all outstanding issues.
The two sides held two informal sessions in which different matters relating to the formation of mechanism of future talks came under discussion. The discussions are essentially on the issue of formation of a working group on Kashmir.
The KSG proposal
The KSG proposal in its original version envisaged partition of Kashmir in three parts: one comprising the Northern Areas and Pakistani Kashmir to stay with Pakistan and the other consisting of Jammu and Laddakh remaining with India whereas the Valley of Kashmir will be reconstituted, through a plebiscite, as a sovereign entity (but one without an international personality). For details see section under “Options Suggested so far”.
Japan’s foreign minister offered to host an international conference involving India and Pakistan in an attempt to resolve their dispute over Kashmir.
Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee announced to resume talks with Pakistan on all issues, including the core issue of Kashmir, but refused any third party mediation.
Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee, in an interview to the Washington Post said that his government is ready to settle the Kashmir dispute with Pakistan under the 1972 Simla agreement.
The Prime Ministers of Pakistan and India met on the sidelines of SAARC Summit in Colombo. The main subject of discussion was the resumption of dialogue on Kashmir. Pursuant to the directive of their Prime Ministers, the Foreign Secretaries of Pakistan and India met twice on July 29 and 30, 1998 to overcome the procedural as well as substantive impediments to the resumption of Pak-India talks. They could not reach an agreement. As such no progress could be made in Colombo.
Foreign Secretary Shamshad Ahmad and his Indian counterpart K. Raghunath who held several meetings in Durban on the issue of resumption of talks arrived at “an understanding, in principle, to operationalize the mechanism for dialogue on all issues as per the agreed agenda”.
Composite dialogue between India and Pakistan on the issue for peace and security including CBMs and J&K held in Kashmir.
Composite dialogue held in New Delhi and Siachen discussed.
Lahore summit and the subsequent declaration in February 1999.
The Lahore Declaration held that both India and Pakistan:
• shall intensify their efforts to resolve all issues, including the issue of Jammu and Kashmir.
• shall refrain from intervention and interference in each other’s internal affairs.
• shall intensify their composite and integrated dialogue process for an early and positive outcome of the agreed bilateral agenda.
• shall take immediate steps for reducing the risk of accidental or unauthorized use of nuclear weapons and discuss concepts and doctrines with a view to elaborating measures for confidence building in the nuclear and conventional fields, aimed at prevention of conflict.
• reaffirm their commitment to the goals and objectives of SAARC and to concert their efforts towards the realization of the SAARC vision for the year 2000 and beyond with a view to promoting the welfare of the peoples of South Asia and to improve their quality of life through accelerated economic growth, social progress and cultural development.
• reaffirm their condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and their determination to combat this menace.
• shall promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms
July – Agra summit
The talks between General Pervez Musharraf and the Indian Prime Minster failed to reach any positive conclusion. Musharraf at a Breakfast Meeting with senior journalists said that unless India acknowledged that Kashmir was the main issue of contention between the two countries, no progress could be made.
South Asian leaders Sunday wrapped up a summit overshadowed by a build up of troops by India on Pakistani borders with no apparent easing of tensions between the nuclear-armed neighbours. Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf briefly broke the ice Saturday when he walked up to Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee to extend a hand of genuine, sincere friendship.
Musharraf in his address to the nation banned the Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad along with three other sectarian and religious extremist outfits, ruled out handing over Pakistanis wanted by India and invited Vajpayee, for talks.
The Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, while speaking at a function in Himachal Pradesh said, any talks with Pakistan would have to be held within the purview of the Shimla and the Lahore agreements.
Pakistan President, Pervez Musharraf, renewed a call for the resumption of dialogue between India and Pakistan to resolve the Kashmir issue and said, his government is ready for talks. Musharraf said that Kashmir issue should be solved according to the wishes of Kashmiris and his government was ready for talks with India to work out a durable solution to it. He said this during his conversation with Prime Minister of Pakistani Kashmir, Sikandar Hayat Khan in Islamabad
Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf vows that Pakistan will never compromise on the Kashmiris’ right of determination, and rejects polls in occupied Kashmir as a bid to legitimize India’s illegal occupation. In a tough speech at a flag hoisting ceremony on the country’s 55th Independence Day, Musharraf said referendum on Kashmiris’ political destiny the key to peace in South Asia. “The struggle for self-determination of our Kashmiri brothers is a sacred trust that can never be compromised,” he said.
Presiding over a meeting of the Pakistan’s Kashmir Council, President General Pervez Musharraf said the Indian troops’ pull back had vindicated Pakistan’s stance that all matters between the two countries, including the Kashmir issue, could be settled through bilateral dialogue.
In an interview with Indian daily the Asian Age, Pakistan Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri has dismissed Indian stand that it would involve only elected representatives in the talks to restore peace in Kashmir. He said, “the talks need not to be exclusive and can involve all shades of opinion, in power or out of power.”
Pervez Musharraf orders a ceasefire along the border of Indian Kashmir and Pakistani Kashmir.
Musharraf renews call for a ceasefire along the Line of Control (LoC) at the UN General Assembly, New York.
India proposes a set of 12 confidence building measures including to start two new bus services – between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad, and Khokarapar (Sindh) and Munabao (Barmer, Rajasathan)
Pakistan’s response is positive, but with conditions on some of the proposals. Pakistan also suggests an additional confidence building measure: To provide medical treatment to disabled Kashmiris, widows and rape victims; 100 scholarships for Kashmiri graduates
Pakistan stresses the need for bilateral dialogue.
India unveils a plan to move towards “normal” relations with Pakistan, including an offer to talk to Islamic separatist leaders in Kashmir.
Eve of Id ul Fitr: Pakistani Prime Minister Zafarullah Jamali announces a ceasefire offer to India along the International Border (IB) and the Line of Control (LoC). India proposes extension of the ceasefire along the Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) in Siachen.
Formal ceasefire between India and Pakistan along the International Border (IB), Line of Control (LoC) and the Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) in Jammu and Kashmir begins at midnight.
Musharraf suggests that he may be willing to back down on the plebiscite demand. This provokes a furious response from the hard line Islamists.
Vajpayee and Musharraf hold their first direct talks for more than two years on 5 January. In the joint press statement, Delhi agrees to unconditionally resume the dialogue process with Islamabad after a gap of two and a half years, and agrees that the “resumption of the composite dialogue will lead to peaceful settlement of all bilateral issues, including Jammu and Kashmir, to the satisfaction of both sides”. As an apparent quid pro quo, President Musharraf reassured Prime Minister Vajpayee that he “will not permit any territory under Pakistan’s control to be used to support terrorism in any manner”.
India and Pakistan discuss improving bus service and study technical aspects for the starting of the Muzaffarabad-Srinagar bus service.
India and Pakistan discuss the 450 MW power project on the Chenab river in Baglihar during the Meeting of Indus water commissioners held in Islamabad.
Representatives of the All Parties Hurriyat Conference (AHPC) and the Indian Deputy Prime Minister L. K. Advani meet and agree to find an “honorable and durable solution” to the Kashmir problem through dialogue during the First meeting between the AHPC and the Indian Deputy Prime Minister L. K. Advani.
Pakistan will never place Kashmir issue in the deep freezer and discuss trade, travel and other matters with India, says Shaikh Rashid, Minister for Information, while speaking at Embassy of Pakistan in Washington, to mark the Kashmir Solidarity Day.
Meeting of Foreign Secretaries in Murree, India and Pakistan reach “a broad understanding on the modalities and the time-frame for commencing the composite dialogue”.
In May-June, Foreign Secretaries of the two countries met for talks on peace and security, including:
1. Peace and Security
In the later half of May experts met for talks on nuclear confidence building measures and in June experts will meet for talks on drug trafficking and smuggling.
In July, Secretaries of the two countries met for talks on the remaining issues:
3. Wullar Barrage
4. Friendly exchanges
5. Siachen glacier
6. Sir Creek
7. Terrorism and drug trafficking
8. Economic and commercial cooperation
In August, the Foreign Ministers of the two countries met to review progress.
First flag meeting between Indian and Pakistani army units in over three years takes place in the Chorbat La sector under the Kargil-based 8 Mountain Division (India).
Meeting of transport and communications officials in Islamabad India and Pakistan agree to set up the Munabao- Khokhropar bus service, but this could take some time. No date given for the second round of talks on the subject.
Addressing the India Today Conclave 2004 via Satellite from Islamabad, President Gen Pervez Musharraf insists that Kashmir lay at the heart of India-Pakistan confrontation and warns that if there was no movement towards its resolution, everything would slide back to square one
Pakistan’s President, General Pervez Musharraf said that if there is no progress by August in the talks with India on Kashmir, he will no longer be a party to the process. General Musharraf said, he had made his position clear to India and the United States. “We have to move forward on Kashmir. We have to resolve it,” General Musharraf said in comments broadcast on state television.
Talking to newsmen at Bhurban, Foreign Minister Khurshid Mehmud Kasuri says Pakistan would not sideline the Kashmir issue, as durable peace in South Asia is not possible without just solution to the core dispute.
Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf told a meeting of legislators in Lahore, there was no question of Pakistan accepting the LoC as the solution to resolve the Kashmir issue. He said, there is no question of any sell-out on Kashmir.
Pakistani Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali while talking to newsmen in Islamabad says, the change of the government in India will not halt peace process as it is need of the people from both countries to resolve the issues through composite dialogue
Addressing the United Nations Security Council, Pakistan’s Foreign Minister Khurshid Mehmood Kasuri said the United Nations Military Observer Group (UNMOGIP) in Jammu and Kashmir could help in promoting a just and peaceful resolution of the Kashmir issue.
Addressing a press conference in New Delhi, India’s incoming Prime Minister Manmohan Singh pledges to push forward the dialogue with Pakistan and hold talks with all parties over Kashmir.
Meeting of water and power secretaries held in Delhi, India and Pakistan discuss the construction of a 450 MW power project on the Chenab in Baglihar.
Meeting of senior officials of the Indian Border Security Force (BSF) and Pakistani Rangers in Khokhropar, India and Pakistan discuss drug trafficking preventive measures, patrolling on the borderline, and complete observation of international laws regarding border security.
Dialogue on Wullar Barrage. Meeting of water and power secretaries in Delhi. The two sides confirm their wish to resolve the issue within the provisions of the Indus Water Treaty.
Meeting of defence secretaries in Delhi. Dialogue on Siachen glacier. The two sides discuss ways of disengaging and redeploying troops from the Siachen glacier and state that talks will continue.
India and Pakistan carry out an exchange of 6 prisoners of war at the Wagah border post. Pakistan hands over two prisoners arrested during the Kargil conflict and India releases four, including one arrested during the Kargil conflict.
During a meeting of home/interior secretaries in Islamabad, terrorism and drug trafficking were discussed. The two sides are unable to agree on a definition of terrorism. They agree to strengthen cooperation in tackling drug trafficking
• increase contacts between narcotics control authorities
• designate officials in the High Commissions to liaise on drug control issues
Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, in his first Independence Day address said, that India wants a purposive bilateral dialogue with Pakistan to resolve all outstanding issues.
During a meeting of Foreign Ministers in Delhi, an India-Pakistan Joint Statement was signed. India and Pakistan review status of the composite dialogue. The two sides agree on 13 points, indicating a further ‘road map’ for the peace process including the following Kashmir specific ones:
· Meeting between railway authorities on the Munnabao–Khokhrapar rail link.
· On Siachen, the outcome of the August 2004 meeting of defence secretaries would be implemented.
· Meeting on all issues related to commencement of bus service between
· Srinagar and Muzaffarabad.
· Add a new category of tourist visa in the visa regime between the two countries, and to promote group tourism.
They also recognized the importance of availability and access to energy resources in the region around South Asia. The Ministers of Petroleum/ Gas could meet to discuss the issue in its multifarious dimensions. It was also agreed that the two Foreign Secretaries would meet in December 2004 to discuss overall progress, as well as subjects of Peace and Security including CBMs, and Jammu and Kashmir, in the Composite Dialogue. They would also work out the schedule of meetings on the other six subjects, i.e. Siachen; Wullar Barrage/ Tulbul Navigation Project; Sir Creek; Terrorism and Drug Trafficking; Economic and Commercial Cooperation; and Promotion of Friendly Exchanges in Various Fields, under the Composite Dialogue.
UN General Assembly, New York. Joint Statement – Meeting between Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf.
Meeting between Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President Musharraf in New York on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly. This is their first meeting since Manmohan Singh took office in May. In the joint statement both leaders agree that confidence building measures (CBMs) between the two governments should be implemented keeping in mind practical possibilities. They also addressed the issue of Jammu and Kashmir and “agreed that possible options for a peaceful, negotiated settlement of the issue should be explored in a sincere spirit and purposeful manner”. The possibility of a gas pipeline via Pakistan to India was also discussed.
Musharraf proposed in Islamabad that:
· Pakistan would no longer insist on a plebiscite in Kashmir.
· Since India would not accept a ‘religion-based solution’, a solution could be formulated in ‘geographical terms’.
· ‘Kashmir’ can be divided into seven regions – five with India and two with Pakistan.
· A three-stage process should be employed to secure a ‘solution’: First, identify the region at stake. Second, demilitarize it. Third, change its status.
· As regards the ‘status’, various options could be examined including “ideas for joint control, UN mandates, condominiums, and so on.”
Scheduled meeting between petroleum ministers of India and Pakistan to take forward the Indo-Iran gas pipeline.
Scheduled meeting between Foreign Secretaries to discuss overall progress, as well as issues of Peace and Security, including CBMs, and Jammu and Kashmir, under the composite dialogue. They are also to work out a schedule of meetings on the other six subjects of the composite dialogue – Siachen, Wullar Barrage, Sir Creek, Terrorism and Drug Trafficking, Economic and Commercial Cooperation and Friendly Exchanges
April 16, 2005
The Indian Cabinet Committee on Security during a meeting proposed seven confidence-building measures (CBMs) on Jammu and Kashmir.
The proposed CBMs include:
- Reviving of traditional communication and bus links
- Allowing relatives on either sides to meet at several points on LoC, including Poonch, Mendhar, Suchetgarh, Uri and Tangdar
- Promoting and developing international trade across LoC
- Mechanism for permitting pilgrims on both sides to visit Sikh and Hindu temples and Muslim shrines
- Promoting cultural interaction and cooperation
- joint promotion of tourism in the area
- Exploring cooperation on issues such as management of environment, forestry resources.
April 18, 2005
India and Pakistan agreed upon the following CBMs:
- Trade to be opened across Line of Control
- Jammu-Rawalakot route to be operationalised
- Karachi, Mumbai Consulates to be opened by year-end
- Steps for meetings of divided families along LoC
Options suggested so far to resolve the Kashmir issue
Andorra is a princely state located on the border between France and Spain and it was claimed by both Spain and France. In 1993, the two countries reached an agreement and gave Andhora an independent constitution and gave them autonomy bordering on complete freedom – Andorra adopted Parliamentary democracy, but retains the titular heads of state nominated by France and Spain.
Under the Andorra Proposal, Kashmir Valley would become a principality with foreign policy, defence and financial support shared by India and Pakistan. The Andorra proposal would result in the Kashmir Valley – including Pakistan-occupied Kashmir – dominated by Muslims, being carved out into a principality with its own Parliament. However, India and Pakistan would have nominated representatives. It would have open borders. It would also involve the tripartite partition of Jammu & Kashmir
According to some experts, such an agreement was almost finalized in 1964 negotiations between President Ayub Khan and Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.
Chenab formula is believed to have been proposed by Niaz Naik. The plan seeks to divide the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir on communal lines along the Chenab river and cede the western side to Pakistan. Under the proposal, India would retain Hindu and Bddhist majority areas of Jammu and Ladakh while Northern Areas, POK, Kashmir valley, and districts of Muslim majority in Jammu and Kargil regions join Pakistan.
The JKLF has proposed the formation of an eleven member International Kashmir Committee (IKC) consisting of one representative each from the U.N., United States, Russia, France, Britain, China, Germany, Japan, and the Organization of Islamic Conference, and two representatives from the Nonaligned Movement. This committee will oversee a Kashmir settlement in five phases, beginning with (1) the formulation of an agreement, (2) the withdrawal of Indian, Pakistani and foreign militant forces from the entire state, (3) the demilitarization of all Kashmiri militants, (4) the opening of all roads between the two halves of Kashmir followed by a secular, democratic constitution with representation from Kashmir, Jammu, Ladakh, Pakistani Kashmir and the Northern Territories, and (5) a U.N.-supervised referendum 15 years later where the residents of the state will decide on whether to join India, Pakistan or remain independent. The proposal is clearly loaded in favor of the independence option.
KSG Proposal – I – 1998
The KSG proposal in its original version envisaged partition of Kashmir in three parts: one comprising the Northern Areas and Pakistani Kashmir to stay with Pakistan and the other consisting of Jammu and Laddakh remaining with India whereas the Valley of Kashmir will be reconstituted, through a plebiscite, as a sovereign entity (but one without an international personality).
Since this proposal came under severe criticism in India, the KSG came forward with a modified version recommending that “a portion of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir be reconstituted as a sovereign entity (but one without an international personality)…. through an internationally supervised ascertainment of the wishes of the Kashmiri people on either side of the Line of Control”.
“This ascertainment would follow agreement among India, Pakistan and representatives of the Kashmiri people to move forward with this proposal. The sovereignty of the new entity would be guaranteed by India, Pakistan and appropriate international bodies.”
“The new entity would have its own secular, democratic constitution, as well as its own citizenship, flag, and a legislature, which would legislate on all matters other than defence and foreign affairs.
India and Pakistan would be responsible for the defence of the Kashmiri entity, which would itself maintain police and gendarme forces for internal law and order purposes. India and Pakistan would be expected to work out financial arrangements for the Kashmiri entity, which could include a currency of its own.”
“The borders of Kashmir with India and Pakistan would remain open for the free transit of people, goods, and services in accordance with arrangements to be worked out between India, Pakistan, and the Kashmiri entity.
“While the present Line of Control would remain in place until such time as both India and Pakistan decided to alter it in their mutual interest, both India and Pakistan would demilitarize the area included in the Kashmir entity, except to the extent necessary to maintain logistic support for forces outside the state that could not otherwise be effectively supplied. Neither India nor Pakistan could place troops on the other side of the Line of Control without the permission of the other state”
KSG Proposal – II – FEBRUARY 2005
KSG recommends that portions of the former princely State of Jammu and Kashmir be reconstituted into self-governing entities enjoying free access to one another and to and from both India and Pakistan.
1. Three entities — Kashmir, Jammu, and Ladakh — would be established in the portion of the pre-1947 state now administered by India. These three self-governing entities would each take part in a body that would coordinate issues of interest to all of them, such as internal trade and transportation.
2. Two entities — Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas — would be established on the side now administered by Pakistan. Like the entities on the Indian side, they would each be represented in a coordinating body that would consider issues in which they both had an interest.
3. An All-Kashmir body would be set up to coordinate areas of broader interest such as regional trade, tourism, environment, and water resources. This body would include representatives from each of the five entities as well as from India and Pakistan
Each of the new entities would have its own democratic constitution, as well as its own citizenship, flag, and legislature which would legislate on all matters other than defense and foreign affairs. India and Pakistan would be responsible for the defense of the entities, and the entities would maintain police forces to maintain internal law and order. India and Pakistan would be expected to work out financial arrangements for the entities.
Citizenship of the entities would also entitle individuals to acquire Indian or Pakistani passports (depending on which side of the Line of Control they live on). Alternatively, they could use entity passports subject to endorsements by India or Pakistan as appropriate.
The borders of the entities with India and Pakistan would remain open for the free transit of people, goods, and services in accordance with arrangements to be worked out between India, Pakistan and the entities.
While the present Line of Control would remain in place until such time as both India and Pakistan decided to alter it in their mutual interest, both India and Pakistan would demilitarize the area included in the entities. Neither India nor Pakistan could place troops on the other side of the Line of Control without the permission of the other state.
All displaced persons who left any portion of the entities would have the right to return to their home localities.
Asia Society Proposal
According to one report by the Asia Society, India and Pakistan should jointly control both parts of Kashmir and the LoC be converted into IB.
Under an agreement signed between Italy and the Slovenian Republic of former Yugoslavia in 1954, the disputed city of Trieste (disputes since WW-II) was divided between the two countries along the existing demarcation line, with some changes. The city’s inhabitants were given free access to both sides of the partition line. Going by this model, India will end up keeping Ladakh, Jammu and other parts of Kashmir, except the valley, which will go to Pakistan. With this transfer, Pakistan will have almost half the total land area of J&K as t already has POK with it. Residents on both sides will have access to both sides of the dividing line.
The Australian Jurist, Sir Owen Dixon proposed to trifurcate the State in 1950. he suggested that the disputed territory be divided into three zones and plebiscites be conducted separately for the three zones. The three zones were to be 1) Kashmir valley plus the Muslim areas of Jammu – Poonch, Rajori and Doda. Moreover, Kargil would form part of the Valley. 2) Jammu with the remaining district of Ladakh. 3) POK plus the Northern Areas.
Musharraf formula – October 2004
Musharraf suggested in October 2004 that India and Pakistan could consider identifying seven regions of J&K on both sides of the Line of Control, demilitarise them and grant them independence or joint control or govern them under the aegis of the United Nations (change their status).
Jagat Mehta’s Proposal
Ex-Foreign Secretary Jagat Mehta proposed the following steps to solve the Kashmir issue:
1- Pacification of the Valley
2- Restoration of an autonomous Kashmiriyat
3- Conversion of LoC into a soft-border permitting free movement and facilitating economic exchanges.
4- Immediate demilitarization of LoC to a depth of five to ten miles with agreed methods of verifying compliance.
5- Conduct parallel democratic elections in both parts of Kashmir. The governments elected therein may facilitate more and more exchanges.
6- Final suspension of the dispute between the two countries can be suspended for an agreed upon period.
7- Pending final settlement, there should be no internationalization of the Kashmir issues or demands for Plebiscite.